TRAMADOL HYDROCHLORIDE AND ACETAMINOPHEN tablet (2024)

5.1 Addiction, Abuse and Misuse

Tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen tablets contains tramadol, a Schedule IV controlled substance. As an opioid, tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen exposes users to the risks of addiction, abuse, and misuse [see Drug Abuse and Dependence (9)] .

Although the risk of addiction in any individual is unknown, it can occur in patients appropriately prescribed tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen. Addiction can occur at recommended dosages and if the drug is misused or abused.

Assess each patient’s risk for opioid addiction, abuse, or misuse prior to prescribing tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen, and reassess all patients receiving tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen for the development of these behaviors and conditions. Risks are increased in patients with a personal or family history of substance abuse (including drug or alcohol abuse or addiction) or mental illness (e.g., major depression). The potential for these risks should not, however, prevent the proper management of pain in any given patient. Patients at increased risk may be prescribed opioids such as tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen, but use in such patients necessitates intensive counseling about the risks and proper use of tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen along with frequent reevaluation for signs of addiction, abuse, and misuse. Consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose [see Dosage and Administration (2.2), Warnings and Precautions (5.2)] .

Opioids are sought for nonmedical use and are subject to diversion from legitimate prescribed use. Consider these risks when prescribing or dispensing tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen. Strategies to reduce these risks include prescribing the drug in the smallest appropriate quantity and advising the patient on careful storage of the drug during the course of treatment and proper disposal of unused drug. Contact local state professional licensing board or state-controlled substances authority for information on how to prevent and detect abuse or diversion of this product.

5.2 Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression

Serious, life-threatening, or fatal respiratory depression has been reported with the use of opioids, even when used as recommended. Respiratory depression, if not immediately recognized and treated, may lead to respiratory arrest and death. Management of respiratory depression may include close observation, supportive measures, and use of opioid antagonists, depending on the patient’s clinical status [see Overdosage (10)] . Carbon dioxide (CO 2) retention from opioid-induced respiratory depression can exacerbate the sedating effects of opioids.

While serious, life-threatening, or fatal respiratory depression can occur at any time during the use of tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen, the risk is greatest during the initiation of therapy or following a dosage increase.

To reduce the risk of respiratory depression, proper dosing and titration of tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen are essential [see Dosage and Administration (2)] . Overestimating the tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen dosage when converting patients from another opioid product can result in a fatal overdose with the first dose.

Accidental ingestion of even one dose of tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen, especially by children, can result in respiratory depression and death due to an overdose of tramadol.

Educate patients and caregivers on how to recognize respiratory depression and emphasize the importance of calling 911 or getting emergency medical help right away in the event of a known or suspected overdose [see Patient Counseling Information (17)] .

Opioids can cause sleep-related breathing disorders including central sleep apnea (CSA) and sleep-related hypoxemia. Opioid use increases the risk of CSA in a dose-dependent fashion. In patients who present with CSA, consider decreasing the opioid dosage using best practices for opioid taper [see Dosage and Administration (2.5)] .

Patient Access to Naloxone for the Emergency Treatment of Opioid Overdose

Discuss the availability of naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose with the patient and caregiver and assess the potential need for access to naloxone, both when initiating and renewing treatment with tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen tablets. Inform patients and caregivers about the various ways to obtain naloxone as permitted by individual state naloxone dispensing and prescribing requirements or guidelines (e.g., by prescription, directly from a pharmacist, or as part of a community-based program). Educate patients and caregivers on how to recognize respiratory depression and emphasize the importance of calling 911 or getting emergency medical help, even if naloxone is administered [see Patient Counseling Information (17)] .

Consider prescribing naloxone, based on the patient’s risk factors for overdose, such as concomitant use of CNS depressants, a history of opioid use disorder, or prior opioid overdose. However, the presence of risk factors for overdose should not prevent the proper management of pain in any given patient. Also consider prescribing naloxone if the patient has household members (including children) or other close contacts at risk for accidental exposure or overdose. If naloxone is prescribed, educate patients and caregivers on how to treat with naloxone [see Dosage and Administration (2.2), Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.3), Overdosage (10) and Patient Counseling Information (17)] .

5.3 Risks from Concomitant Use with Benzodiazepines or Other CNS Depressants

Profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death may result from the concomitant use of tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen with benzodiazepinesand/or other CNS depressants, including alcohol (e.g., non-benzodiazepine sedatives/hypnotics, anxiolytics, tranquilizers, muscle relaxants, general anesthetics, antipsychotics, other opioids). Because of these risks, reserve concomitant prescribing of these drugs for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate.

Observational studies have demonstrated that concomitant use of opioid analgesics and benzodiazepines increases the risk of drug-related mortality compared to use of opioid analgesics alone. Because of similar pharmacological properties, it is reasonable to expect similar risk with the concomitant use of other CNS depressant drugs with opioid analgesics [see Drug Interactions (7)] .

If the decision is made to prescribe a benzodiazepine or other CNS depressant concomitantly with an opioid analgesic, prescribe the lowest effective dosages and minimum durations of concomitant use. In patients already receiving an opioid analgesic, prescribe a lower initial dose of the benzodiazepine or other CNS depressant than indicated in the absence of an opioid, and titrate based on clinical response. If an opioid analgesic is initiated in a patient already taking a benzodiazepine or other CNS depressant, prescribe a lower initial dose of the opioid analgesic, and titrate based on clinical response. Inform patients and caregivers of this potential interaction and educate them on the signs and symptoms of respiratory depression (including sedation).

If concomitant use is warranted, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose [see Dosage and Administration (2.2), Warnings and Precautions (5.2)] .

Advise both patients and caregivers about the risks of respiratory depression and sedation when tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen is used with benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants (including alcohol and illicit drugs). Advise patients not to drive or operate heavy machinery until the effects of concomitant use of the benzodiazepine or other CNS depressant have been determined. Screen patients for risk of substance use disorders, including opioid abuse and misuse, and warn them of the risk for overdose and death associated with the use of additional CNS depressants including alcohol and illicit drugs [see Drug Interactions (7), Patient Counseling Information (17)] .

5.4 Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome

Use of tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen for an extended period of time during pregnancy can result in withdrawal in the neonate. Neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, unlike opioid withdrawal syndrome in adults, may be life-threatening if not recognized and treated, and requires management according to protocols developed by neonatology experts. Observe newborns for signs of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome and manage accordingly. Advise pregnant women using opioids for an extended period of time of the risk of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome and ensure that appropriate treatment will be available [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1) and Patient Counseling Information (17)] .

5.5 Opioid Analgesic Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS)

To ensure that the benefits of opioid analgesics outweigh the risks of addiction, abuse, and misuse, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has required a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) for these products. Under the requirements of the REMS, drug companies with approved opioid analgesic products must make REMS-compliant education programs available to healthcare providers. Healthcare providers are strongly encouraged to do all of the following:

  • Complete a REMS-compliant education program offered by an accredited provider of continuing education (CE) or another education program that includes all the elements of the FDA Education Blueprint for Health Care Providers Involved in the Management or Support of Patients with Pain.
  • Discuss the safe use, serious risks, and proper storage and disposal of opioid analgesics with patients and/or their caregivers every time these medicines are prescribed. The Patient Counseling Guide (PCG) can be obtained at this link: www.fda.gov/OpioidAnalgesicREMSPCG.
  • Emphasize to patients and their caregivers the importance of reading the Medication Guide that they will receive from their pharmacist every time an opioid analgesic is dispensed to them.
  • Consider using other tools to improve patient, household, and community safety, such as patient-prescriber agreements that reinforce patient-prescriber responsibilities.

To obtain further information on the opioid analgesic REMS and for a list of accredited REMS CME/CE, call 1-800-503-0784, or log on to www.opioidanalgesicrems.com.

The FDA Blueprint can be found at www.fda.gov/OpioidAnalgesicREMSBlueprint.

5.6 Ultra-Rapid Metabolism of Tramadol and Other Risk Factors for Life-threatening Respiratory Depression in Children

Life-threatening respiratory depression and death have occurred in children who received tramadol. Tramadol and codeine are subject to variability in metabolism based upon CYP2D6 genotype (described below), which can lead to increased exposure to an active metabolite. Based upon post-marketing reports with tramadol or with codeine, children younger than 12 years of age may be more susceptible to the respiratory depressant effects of tramadol. Furthermore, children with obstructive sleep apnea who are treated with opioids for post-tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy pain may be particularly sensitive to their respiratory depressant effect. Because of the risk of life-threatening respiratory depression and death:

  • Tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen is contraindicated for all children younger than 12 years of age [see Contraindications (4)] .
  • Tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen is contraindicated for post-operative management in pediatric patients younger than 18 years of age following tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy [see Contraindications (4)] .
  • Avoid the use of tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen in adolescents 12 to 18 years of age who have other risk factors that may increase their sensitivity to the respiratory depressant effects of tramadol unless the benefits outweigh the risks. Risk factors include conditions associated with hypoventilation such as post-operative status, obstructive sleep apnea, obesity, severe pulmonary disease, neuromuscular disease, and concomitant use of other medications that cause respiratory depression.
  • As with adults, when prescribing opioids for adolescents, healthcare providers should choose the lowest effective dose for the shortest period of time and inform patients and caregivers about these risks and the signs of opioid overdose [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4), Overdosage (10)] .

Nursing Mothers

Tramadol is subject to the same polymorphic metabolism as codeine, with ultra-rapid metabolizers of CYP2D6 substrates being potentially exposed to life-threatening levels of O-desmethyltramadol (M1). At least one death was reported in a nursing infant who was exposed to high levels of morphine in breast milk because the mother was an ultra-rapid metabolizer of codeine. A baby nursing from an ultra-rapid metabolizer mother taking tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen could potentially be exposed to high levels of M1, and experience life-threatening respiratory depression. For this reason, breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment with tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen [see Use in Specific Populations (8.2)] .

CYP2D6 Genetic Variability: Ultra-rapid metabolizer

Some individuals may be ultra-rapid metabolizers because of a specific CYP2D6 genotype (gene duplications denoted as *1/ *1xN or *1/ *2xN). The prevalence of this CYP2D6 phenotype varies widely and has been estimated at 1% to 10% for Whites (European, North American), 3% to 4% for Blacks (African Americans), 1% to 2% for East Asians (Chinese, Japanese, Korean), and may be greater than 10% in certain racial/ethnic groups (i.e., Oceanian, Northern African, Middle Eastern, Ashkenazi Jews, Puerto Rican). These individuals convert tramadol into its active metabolite, O-desmethyltramadol (M1), more rapidly and completely than other people. This rapid conversion results in higher than expected serum M1 levels. Even at labeled dosage regimens, individuals who are ultra-rapid metabolizers may have life-threatening or fatal respiratory depression or experience signs of overdose (such as extreme sleepiness, confusion, or shallow breathing) [see Overdosage (10)] . Therefore, individuals who are ultra-rapid metabolizers should not use tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen.

5.7 Risks of Interactions with Drugs Affecting Cytochrome P450 Isoenzymes

The effects of concomitant use or discontinuation of cytochrome P450 3A4 inducers, 3A4 inhibitors, or 2D6 inhibitors on levels of tramadol and M1 from tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen are complex. Use of cytochrome P450 3A4 inducers, 3A4 inhibitors, or 2D6 inhibitors with tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen requires careful consideration of the effects on the parent drug, tramadol, which is a weak serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor and μ-opioid agonist, and the active metabolite, M1, which is more potent than tramadol in μ-opioid receptor binding [see Drug Interactions (7)] .

Risks of Concomitant Use or Discontinuation of Cytochrome P450 2D6 Inhibitors

The concomitant use of tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen with all cytochrome P450 2D6 inhibitors (e.g., amiodarone, quinidine) may result in an increase in tramadol plasma levels and a decrease in the levels of the active metabolite, M1. A decrease in M1 exposure in patients who have developed physical dependence to tramadol, may result in signs and symptoms of opioid withdrawal and reduced efficacy. The effect of increased tramadol levels may be an increased risk for serious adverse events including seizures and serotonin syndrome.

Discontinuation of a concomitantly used cytochrome P450 2D6 inhibitor may result in a decrease in tramadol plasma levels and an increase in active metabolite M1 levels, which could increase or prolong adverse reactions related to opioid toxicity and may cause potentially fatal respiratory depression.

Evaluate patients receiving tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen and any CYP2D6 inhibitor at frequent intervals for the risk of serious adverse events including seizures and serotonin syndrome, signs and symptoms that may reflect opioid toxicity, and opioid withdrawal when tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen is used in conjunction with inhibitors of CYP2D6 [see Drug Interactions (7)] .

Cytochrome P450 3A4 Interaction

The concomitant use of tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen with cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitors, such as macrolide antibiotics (e.g., erythromycin), azole-antifungal agents (e.g., ketoconazole), and protease inhibitors (e.g., ritonavir) or discontinuation of a cytochrome P450 3A4 inducer such as rifampin, carbamazepine, and phenytoin, may result in an increase in tramadol plasma concentrations, which could increase or prolong adverse reactions, increase the risk for serious adverse events including seizures and serotonin syndrome, and may cause potentially fatal respiratory depression.

The concomitant use of tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen with all cytochrome P450 3A4 inducers or discontinuation of a cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitor may result in lower tramadol levels. This may be associated with a decrease in efficacy, and in some patients, may result in signs and symptoms of opioid withdrawal.

Evaluate patients receiving tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen and any CYP3A4 inhibitor or inducer at frequent intervals for the risk for serious adverse events including seizures and serotonin syndrome, signs and symptoms that may reflect opioid toxicity and opioid withdrawal when tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen is used in conjunction with inhibitors and inducers of CYP3A4 [see Drug Interactions (7)] .

5.8 Opioid-Induced Hyperalgesia and Allodynia

Opioid-Induced Hyperalgesia (OIH) occurs when an opioid analgesic paradoxically causes an increase in pain, or an increase in sensitivity to pain. This condition differs from tolerance, which is the need for increasing doses of opioids to maintain a defined effect [see Dependence (9.3)] . Symptoms of OIH include (but may not be limited to) increased levels of pain upon opioid dosage increase, decreased levels of pain upon opioid dosage decrease, or pain from ordinarily non-painful stimuli (allodynia). These symptoms may suggest OIH only if there is no evidence of underlying disease progression, opioid tolerance, opioid withdrawal, or addictive behavior.

Cases of OIH have been reported, both with short-term and longer-term use of opioid analgesics. Though the mechanism of OIH is not fully understood, multiple biochemical pathways have been implicated. Medical literature suggests a strong biologic plausibility between opioid analgesics and OIH and allodynia. If a patient is suspected to be experiencing OIH, carefully consider appropriately decreasing the dose of the current opioid analgesic, or opioid rotation (safelyswitching the patient to a different opioid moiety) [see Dosage and Administration (2.5); Warnings and Precautions (5.21)] .

5.9 Hepatotoxicity

Tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophentablets contains tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen. Acetaminophen has been associated with cases of acute liver failure, at times resulting in liver transplant and death. Most of the cases of liver injury are associated with the use of acetaminophen at doses that exceed 4,000 milligrams per day, and often involve more than one acetaminophen-containing product. The excessive intake of acetaminophen may be intentional to cause self-harm or unintentional as patients attempt to obtain more pain relief or unknowingly take other acetaminophen-containing products.

The risk of acute liver failure is higher in individuals with underlying liver disease and in individuals who ingest alcohol while taking acetaminophen.

Instruct patients to look for acetaminophen or APAP on package labels and not to use more than one product that contains acetaminophen. Instruct patients to seek medical attention immediately upon ingestion of more than 4,000 milligrams of acetaminophen per day, even if they feel well.

5.10 Serotonin Syndrome Risk

Cases of serotonin syndrome, a potentially life-threatening condition, have been reported with the use of tramadol, including tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen, during concomitant use with serotonergic drugs.

Serotonergic drugs include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), triptans, 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system (e.g., mirtazapine, trazodone, tramadol),certain muscle relaxants (i.e., cyclobenzaprine, metaxalone), and drugs that impair metabolism of serotonin (including MAO inhibitors, both those intended to treat psychiatric disorders and also others, such as linezolid and intravenous methylene blue) [see Drug Interactions (7)] . This may occur within the recommended dosage range.

Serotonin syndrome symptoms may include mental status changes (e.g., agitation, hallucinations, coma), autonomic instability (e.g., tachycardia, labile blood pressure, hyperthermia), neuromuscular aberrations (e.g., hyperreflexia, incoordination, rigidity), and/or gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea). The onset of symptoms generally occurs within several hours to a few days of concomitant use, but may occur later than that. Discontinue tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen if serotonin syndrome is suspected.

5.11 Increased Risk of Seizures

Seizures have been reported in patients receiving tramadol within the recommended dosage range. Spontaneous post-marketing reports indicate that seizure risk is increased with doses of tramadol above the recommended range.

Concomitant use of tramadol increases the seizure risk in patients taking: [see Drug Interactions (7)] .

  • Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and Serotonin-norepinephrine re-uptake inhibitors (SNRIs) antidepressants or anorectics,
  • Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and other tricyclic compounds (e.g., cyclobenzaprine, promethazine, etc.),
  • Other opioids,
  • MAO inhibitors [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10), Drug Interactions (7)]
  • Neuroleptics, or
  • Other drugs that reduce the seizure threshold.

Risk of seizures may also increase in patients with epilepsy, those with a history of seizures, or in patients with a recognized risk for seizure (such as head trauma, metabolic disorders, alcohol and drug withdrawal, CNS infections).

In tramadol overdose, naloxone administration may increase the risk of seizure.

5.12 Suicide Risk

  • Do not prescribe tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen for patients who are suicidal or addiction-prone. Consideration should be given to the use of non-narcotic analgesics in patients who are suicidal or depressed [see Drug Abuse and Dependence (9)] .
  • Prescribe tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen with caution for patients with a history of misuse and/or are currently taking CNS-active drugs including tranquilizers, or antidepressant drugs, or alcohol in excess, and patients who suffer from emotional disturbance or depression [see Drug Interactions (7)] .
  • Inform patients not to exceed the recommended dose and to limit their intake of alcohol [see Dosage and Administration (2), Warnings and Precautions (5.3, 5.9)] .

5.13 Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression in Patients with Chronic Pulmonary Disease or in Elderly, Cachectic, or Debilitated Patients

The use of tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen in patients with acute or severe bronchial asthma in an unmonitored setting or in the absence of resuscitative equipment is contraindicated [see Contraindications (4)] .

Patients with Chronic Pulmonary Disease: Tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen-treated patients with significant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or cor pulmonale, and those with a substantially decreased respiratory reserve, hypoxia, hypercapnia, or pre-existing respiratory depression are at increased risk of decreased respiratory drive including apnea, even at recommended dosages of tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)] .

Elderly, Cachectic, or Debilitated Patients: Life-threatening respiratory depression is more likely to occur in elderly, cachectic, or debilitated patients because they may have altered pharmaco*kinetics, or altered clearance, compared to younger, healthier patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)] .

Regularly evaluate patients, particularly when initiating and titrating tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen tablets and when tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen tablets are given concomitantly with other drugs that depress respiration [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3), Drug Interactions (7)] . Alternatively, consider the use of non-opioid analgesics in these patients.

5.14 Adrenal Insufficiency

Cases of adrenal insufficiency have been reported with opioid use, more often following greater than one month of use. Presentation of adrenal insufficiency may include non-specific symptoms and signs including nausea, vomiting, anorexia, fatigue, weakness, dizziness, and low blood pressure. If adrenal insufficiency is suspected, confirm the diagnosis with diagnostic testing as soon as possible. If adrenal insufficiency is diagnosed, treat with physiologic replacement doses of corticosteroids. Wean the patient off of the opioid to allow adrenal function to recover and continue corticosteroid treatment until adrenal function recovers. Other opioids may be tried as some cases reported use of a different opioid without recurrence of adrenal insufficiency. The information available does not identify any particular opioids as being more likely to be associated with adrenal insufficiency.

5.15 Severe Hypotension

Tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen may cause severe hypotension including orthostatic hypotension and syncope in ambulatory patients. There is increased risk in patients whose ability to maintain blood pressure has already been compromised by a reduced blood volume or concurrent administration of certain CNS depressant drugs (e.g., phenothiazines or general anesthetics) [see Drug Interactions (7)] . Regularly evaluate these patients for signs of hypotension after initiating or titrating the dosage of tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen. In patients with circulatory shock, tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen may cause vasodilation that can further reduce cardiac output and blood pressure. Avoid the use of tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen in patients with circulatory shock.

5.16 Risk of Use in Patients with Increased Intracranial Pressure, Brain Tumors, Head Injury, or Impaired Consciousness

In patients who may be susceptible to the intracranial effects of CO 2retention (e.g., those with evidence of increased intracranial pressure or brain tumors), tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen may reduce respiratory drive, and the resultant CO 2retention can further increase intracranial pressure. Regularly evaluate such patients for signs of sedation and respiratory depression, particularly when initiating therapy with tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen.

Opioids may also obscure the clinical course in a patient with a head injury. Avoid the use of tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen in patients with impaired consciousness or coma.

5.17 Serious Skin Reactions

Rarely, acetaminophen may cause serious skin reactions such as acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), which can be fatal. Patients should be informed about the signs of serious skin reactions, and use of the drug should be discontinued at the first appearance of skin rash or any other sign of hypersensitivity.

5.18 Risk of Use in Patients with Gastrointestinal Conditions

Tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen is contraindicated in patients with known or suspected gastrointestinal obstruction, including paralytic ileus [see Contraindications (4)] .

The tramadol in tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen may cause spasm of the sphincter of Oddi. Opioids may cause increases in serum amylase. Regularly evaluate patients with biliary tract disease, including acute pancreatitis, for worsening symptoms.

5.19 Anaphylaxis and Other Hypersensitivity Reactions

Serious and rarely fatal anaphylactic reactions have been reported in patients receiving therapy with tramadol. When these events do occur it is often following the first dose. Other reported allergic reactions include pruritus, hives, bronchospasm, angioedema, toxic epidermal necrolysis, and Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Patients with a history of anaphylactoid reactions to tramadol and other opioids may be at increased risk and therefore should not receive tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen. If anaphylaxis or other hypersensitivity occurs, stop administration of tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen immediately, discontinue tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen permanently, and do not rechallenge with any formulation of tramadol. Advise patients to seek immediate medical attention if they experience any symptoms of a hypersensitivity reaction [see Contraindications (4)] .

There have been post-marketing reports of hypersensitivity and anaphylaxis associated with the use of acetaminophen. Clinical signs included swelling of the face, mouth, and throat, respiratory distress, urticaria, rash, pruritus, and vomiting. There were infrequent reports of life-threatening anaphylaxis requiring emergency medical attention. Instruct patients to discontinue tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen immediately and seek medical care if they experience these symptoms. Do not prescribe tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen for patients with acetaminophen allergy.

5.20 Increased Risk of Hepatotoxicity with Concomitant Use of Other Acetaminophen-containing Products

Due to the potential for acetaminophen hepatotoxicity at doses higher than the recommended dose, tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen tablets should not be used concomitantly with other acetaminophen containing products.

5.21 Withdrawal

Do not abruptly discontinue tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen in a patient physically dependent on opioids. When discontinuing tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen in a physically dependent patient, gradually taper the dosage. Rapid tapering of tramadol and acetaminophen in a patient physically dependent on opioids may lead to a withdrawal syndrome and return of pain [see Dosage and Administration (2.5), Drug Abuseand Dependence (9.3)] .

Additionally, avoid the use of mixed agonist/antagonist (e.g., pentazocine, nalbuphine, and butorphanol) or partial agonist (e.g., buprenorphine) analgesics in patients who are receiving a full opioid agonist analgesic, including tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen. In these patients, mixed agonist/antagonist and partial agonist analgesics may reduce the analgesic effect and/or may precipitate withdrawal symptoms [see Drug Interactions (7)] .

5.22 Driving and Operating Machinery

Tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen may impair the mental or physical abilities needed to perform potentially hazardous activities such as driving a car or operating machinery. Warn patients not to drive or operate dangerous machinery unless they are tolerant to the effects of tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen and know how they will react to the medication [see Patient Counseling Information (17)] .

5.23 Hyponatremia

Hyponatremia (serum sodium < 135 mmol/L) has been reported with the use of tramadol, and many cases are severe (sodium level < 120 mmol/L). Most cases of hyponatremia occurred in females over the age of 65 and within the first week of therapy. In some reports, hyponatremia resulted from the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Regularly evaluate patients for signs and symptoms of hyponatremia (e.g., confusion, disorientation), during treatment with tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen, especially during initiation of therapy. If signs and symptoms of hyponatremia are present, initiate appropriate treatment (e.g., fluid restriction) and discontinue tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen [see Dosage and Administration: Safe Reduction or Discontinuation of tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen(2.5)] .

5.24 Hypoglycemia

Cases of tramadol-associated hypoglycemia have been reported, some resulting in hospitalization. In most cases, patients had predisposing risk factors (e.g., diabetes). If hypoglycemia is suspected, monitor blood glucose levels and consider drug discontinuation as appropriate [see Dosage and Administration: Safe Reduction or Discontinuation of tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen (2.5)] .

TRAMADOL HYDROCHLORIDE AND ACETAMINOPHEN tablet (2024)

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